AskDefine | Define storm

Dictionary Definition

storm

Noun

1 a violent weather condition with winds 64-72 knots (11 on the Beaufort scale) and precipitation and thunder and lightening [syn: violent storm]
2 a violent commotion or disturbance; "the storms that had characterized their relationship had died away"; "it was only a tempest in a teapot" [syn: tempest]
3 a direct and violent assault on a stronghold

Verb

1 behave violently, as if in state of a great anger [syn: ramp, rage]
2 take by force; "Storm the fort" [syn: force]
3 rain, hail, or snow hard and be very windy, often with thunder or lightning; "If it storms, we'll need shelter"
4 blow hard; "It was storming all night"
5 attack by storm; attack suddenly [syn: surprise]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. Any disturbed state of the atmosphere, especially as affecting the earth's surface, and strongly implying destructive or unpleasant weather.
  2. a wind scale for very strong wind, stronger than a gale, less than a hurricane (10 or higher on the Beaufort scale).
  3. A violent assault on a stronghold or fortified position.

Coordinate terms

Derived terms

Translations

disturbed state of the atmosphere
  • Finnish: myrsky
  • Japanese: 嵐
  • Latvian: vētra
  • Russian: буря qualifier windstorm, гроза qualifier thunderstorm, шторм qualifier at sea
  • West Frisian: stoarm
meteorology: a wind scale for very strong wind
  • Czech: bouře
  • Finnish: myrskytuuli
  • Hungarian: vihar
  • Japanese: 暴風
  • Latvian: vētra
  • Russian: буря, шторм qualifier at sea
  • West Frisian: stoarm
weather associated with a storm
  • Finnish: myrsky
  • Japanese: 嵐
  • Latvian: vētra
  • Russian: буря qualifier windstorm, гроза qualifier thunderstorm, шторм qualifier at sea
  • West Frisian: stoarm
military: a violent assault on a stronghold
  • Finnish: tulimyrsky, keskitys
  • Japanese: 猛攻撃, 強襲
  • Russian: штурм, приступ

See also

Verb

  1. To move quickly and noisily like a storm, usually in a state of uproar or anger.
    She stormed out of the room.
  2. To assault (a stronghold or fortification) with military forces.
    Troops stormed the complex.

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • /stɔrm/|lang=nl

Noun

storm
  1. storm; a wind scale for very strong wind, stronger than a gale, less than a hurricane.

Norwegian

Noun

  1. storm

Old English

Etymology

Common Germanic *sturmaz, whence also Old High German sturm, Old Norse stormr

Noun

storm m
  1. storm

Swedish

Pronunciation

Noun

storm
  1. storm; heavy winds or weather associated with storm winds.

Extensive Definition

A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical body's atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by strong wind, thunder and lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation, such as ice (ice storm), or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere (as in a dust storm, snowstorm, hailstorm, etc).

Formation

Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops, with a system of high pressure surrounding it. This combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds, such as the cumulonimbus. Small, localized areas of low pressure can form from hot air rising off hot ground, resulting in smaller disturbances such as dust devils and whirlwinds.

Types

There are many varieties and names for storms.
  • Snowstorm - A heavy fall of snow accumulating at a rate of more than 5 centimeters (2 in) per hour that lasts several hours. Snow storms, especially ones with a high liquid equivalent and breezy conditions, can down tree limbs, cut off power, and paralyze travel over a large region. *Ocean Storm - Storm conditions out at sea are defined as having sustained winds of 48 knots (55 mph or 90 km/h) or greater. Usually just referred to as a storm, these systems can sink vessels of all types and sizes.
  • Firestorm - Firestorms are conflagrations which attain such intensity that they create and sustain their own wind systems. It is most commonly a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, and wildfires. The Peshtigo Fire is one example of a firestorm. Firestorms can also be deliberate effects of targeted explosives such as occurred as a result of the aerial bombings of Dresden and Tokyo during World War II. Nuclear detonations almost invariably generate firestorms
  • Dust devil - a small, localized updraft of rising air.
  • Windstorm - a severe weather condition indicated by high winds and with little or no rain, like European windstorm.
  • Squall - sudden onset of wind increase of at least 16 knots (30 km/h) or greater sustained for at least one minute.
  • Gale - An extratropical storm with sustained winds between 34-48 knots (39-55 mph or 63-90 km/h).
  • Hailstorm - a type of storm that precipitates chunks of ice. Hailstorms usually occur during regular thunder storms. While most of the hail that precipitates from the clouds is fairly small and virtually harmless, there have been cases of hail greater than 2 inches diameter that caused much damage and injuries.
  • Tornado - A tornado is a violent, destructive wind storm occurring on land. Usually its appearance is that of a dark, funnel-shaped cyclone. Often tornadoes are preceded by a thunderstorm and a wall cloud. They are often called the most destructive of storms, and while they form all over the world, the interior of the United States the most prone area, especially throughout Tornado Alley.

Classification

A strict meteorological definition of a terrestrial storm is a wind measuring 10 or higher on the Beaufort scale, meaning a wind speed of 24.5 m/s (89 km/h, 55 mph) or more; however, popular usage is not so restrictive. Storms can last anywhere from 12 to 200 hours, depending on season and geography. The east and northeast storms are noted for the most frequent repeatability and duration, especially during the cold period. Big terrestrial storms alter the oceanographic conditions that in turn may affect food abundance and distribution: strong currents, strong tides, increased siltation, change in water temperatures, overturn in the water column, etc.

Extraterrestrial storms

Storms are not unique to Earth; other heavenly bodies with a sufficient atmosphere (gas giants in particular) also undergo stormy weather. A famous example is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Though technically a hurricane, it is larger than the earth and has been raging for at least 340 years, when it was observed by astronomer Galileo Galilei. Neptune also had its own lesser known Great Dark Spot.
In September 1994 Hubble telescope using Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaged the storms on Saturn, generated by upwelling of warmer air, similar to a terrestrial thunderhead. The east-west extent of the same-year storm was equal to the diameter of Earth. The storm was observed earlier in September 1990 and acquired the name Dragon Storm.

Notable storms in art and culture

According to the Bible, a giant storm sent by God flooded the Earth. Noah and his family and the animals entered the Ark, and "the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights." The flood covered even the highest mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet, and all creatures died; only Noah and those with him on the Ark were left alive.
In Greek mythology there were several gods of storms: Briareos, the god of sea storms; Aigaios, a god of the violent sea storms; and Aiolos, keeper of storm-winds, squalls and tempests.
William Shakespeare's play The Tempest (1611) was based on the following incident. Sir Thomas Gates, future governor of Virginia, was on his way to England from Jamestown, Virginia. On Saint James Day while between Cuba and the Bahamas a hurricane raged for nearly two days. Though one of the small vessels in the fleet sank to the bottom of the Florida Straits, seven of the remaining vessels reached Virginia within several days after the storm. The flagship of the fleet, known as Sea Adventure, disappeared and was presumed lost. A small bit of fortune befell the ship and her crew when they made landfall on Bermuda. The vessel was damaged on a surrounding coral reef, but all aboard survived for nearly a year on the island. The British colonists claimed the island and quickly settled Bermuda. In May 1610, they set forth for Jamestown, this time arriving at their destination.
The Romantic seascape painters J. M. W. Turner and Ivan Aivazovsky created some of the most lasting impressions of the sublime and stormy seas that are firmly imprinted on the popular mind. Turner's representations of powerful natural forces reinvented the traditional seascape during the first half of the nineteenth century. Upon his travels to Holland, he took note of the familiar large rolling waves of the English seashore transforming into the sharper, choppy waves of a Dutch storm. A characteristic example of Turner’s dramatic seascape is The Slave Ship of 1840. Aivazovsky left several thousand turbulent canvases in which he increasingly eliminated human figures and historical background to focus on such essential elements as light, sea, and sky. His grandiose Ninth Wave (1850) is an ode to human daring in the face of the elements.
Storms were also portrayed in several works of music. Examples are Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony (the fourth movement), Presto of the violin concerto RV 315 (Summer) from the Four Seasons by Vivaldi, and a scene in Act II of Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville.

Types of storm without "storm" in name

Structural devices built for storms

References

External links

storm in Afrikaans: Storm
storm in Arabic: عاصفة
storm in Bosnian: Oluja
storm in Breton: Korventenn
storm in Bulgarian: Буря
storm in Catalan: Tempesta
storm in Czech: Bouře (meteorologie)
storm in Danish: Storm
storm in German: Sturm
storm in Spanish: Tormenta
storm in Esperanto: Ŝtormo
storm in Basque: Ekaitz
storm in French: Tempête
storm in Galician: Tormenta
storm in Korean: 폭풍
storm in Croatian: Oluja
storm in Indonesian: Badai
storm in Icelandic: Stormur
storm in Italian: Tempesta
storm in Hebrew: סופה
storm in Lithuanian: Audra
storm in Dutch: Storm (wind)
storm in Japanese: 嵐
storm in Norwegian: Storm
storm in Norwegian Nynorsk: Storm
storm in Occitan (post 1500): Tempèsta
storm in Polish: Sztorm (meteorologia)
storm in Portuguese: Tempestade
storm in Russian: Буря
storm in Sicilian: Timpesta (marina)
storm in Simple English: Storm
storm in Slovak: Búrka
storm in Serbian: Олуја
storm in Finnish: Myrsky
storm in Swedish: Storm
storm in Thai: พายุ
storm in Vietnamese: Bão
storm in Cherokee: ᎦᏃᎸᏍᎩ ᎠᎦᏍᎩ
storm in Turkish: Fırtına (hava)
storm in Ukrainian: Буря
storm in Yoruba: Ìjì
storm in Samogitian: Oudra
storm in Chinese: 风暴

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

access, agitation, assail, assault, attack, ball the jack, barbarize, barrage, barrel, batter, be angry, be excitable, be livid, be pissed, bellow, beset, besiege, black squall, blast, blaze, blaze of temper, blitz, blitzkrieg, blizzard, blow, blow a gasket, blow a hurricane, blow great guns, blow over, blow up, blowup, bluff, bluster, bluster and bluff, board, boil, bombard, boom, bounce, bowl along, brag, breeze, breeze along, breeze up, brew, broadside, browned off, brush, brutalize, bully, burn, burst, bustle, butcher, cannonade, carry on, catch fire, catch the infection, chafe, clamor, clatter, clip, cloudburst, come apart, come up, commotion, convulsion, cut along, cyclone, deluge, destroy, dirty weather, disorder, disturbance, downpour, drumfire, equinoctial, eruption, escalade, excite easily, explode, explosion, fall, fire up, fire upon, fit, flame up, flare up, flare-up, flash up, fleet, flip, flit, fly, fly low, foot, foray, foul weather, freshen, fret, fume, fusillade, gale, gasconade, gather, get excited, go fast, go into hysterics, go on, gust, hail, half a gale, hammer, harmattan, hassle, have a conniption, have a tantrum, heavy blow, hector, high words, highball, hit the ceiling, howl, hubbub, huff, hurly-burly, hurricane, ill wind, inroad, intimidate, inundate, invade, irruption, khamsin, lay siege to, lay waste, line squall, line storm, loot, make a raid, make an inroad, make knots, maul, mistral, monsoon, mug, nip, out-herod Herod, outbreak, outburst, outcry, outpouring, outstrip the wind, overwhelm, paroxysm, pillage, pipe up, pissed off, pother, pour it on, puff, rage, raid, rain, rainstorm, raise Cain, raise hell, raise the devil, raise the roof, ramp, rampage, rant, rant and rave, rape, rave, riot, rip, roar, roister, rollick, rough weather, ruction, ruin, rumpus, run a temperature, sack, salvo, samiel, sandstorm, savage, scale, scale the walls, scene, scorch, seethe, seizure, set in, shell, shower, siege, simmer, simoom, sirocco, sizzle, skim, slang, slaughter, sleet, smoke, smolder, snow, snowstorm, sow chaos, spasm, speed, splutter, sputter, squall, squall line, stew, stir, storm along, storm wind, storming, stormy weather, stormy winds, strife, strike, strong wind, swagger, swashbuckle, sweep, take by storm, take fire, take on, taking by storm, tear, tear along, tear around, tempest, tempestuous rage, tempestuous wind, terrorize, thick squall, throw a fit, thunder, thunder along, thundersquall, thunderstorm, to-do, tornado, tropical cyclone, turbulence, turmoil, turn a hair, typhoon, ugly wind, upheaval, vandalize, vapor, violate, violent blow, volley, waft, whiff, whiffle, whirlwind, whisk, white squall, whiz, whole gale, williwaw, wind-shift line, windstorm, wreck, zing, zip, zoom
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